Linux file management
Linux file system directory structure
bin : user binary files
boot : include files needed when boot system
dev : devices , appear as files
etc : system wide configuration files . user specific configuration file located in each user/home
home : home folder of each user
lib : system libraries . user specific library located in user/lib
media : removable media devices
mnt : mount points for temporary files systems
opt : optional software packages
sbin : system binary files
tmp : temporary files
usr: usr binaries and read-only data
var : writable counterpart to the /usr directory
root : root user home directory
proc : special files, contains system and process information
lost+found: misplaced data
d for directories
l for links
c for character devices
b for block devices
n for network devices
r for read permission for the object
w for write permission for the object
x for execute permission for the object
The owner of the object
The group that owns the object
Everyone else on the system
d it is a directory
rwx for the file owner (set to the login name rich)
rwx for the file group owner (set to the group name rich)
r-x for everyone else on the system
Folder or file could also include sticky bit to only allow owner or root be able to delete or rename .
Files under this folder only owner or root can write .
File metadata and inode
Every file and directory include inode . contains all metadata of files or directories . also include blocks which blocks data are stored in .
Hard link and soft link
Soft link is pointing to original file. Once file removed ,soft link become invalid ;hard link is pointing to same place as original file where data is stored .when original file removed, hard link still valid .
After original file removed, soft link is showing as error and hard link file still remains .